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Activated Oxygen: Activated oxygen is another name for ozone.

Airpot: An airpot has a flip-open top that allows you to brew directly into the pot itself.

Air Roasting: The hot-air roaster, also known as a fluid-bed roaster, roasts the coffee beans as they tumble on a current of hot air.

Anion: A negatively charged ion (chloride Cl- or bicarbonate HCO3-)

Arabica Coffee: Seventy-five to 80 percent of the world's coffee is Arabica, the better tasting bean with less caffeine than Robusta. There is a wide range of quality among the Arabicas, mostly due to difference in altitude, soil, weather and processing. The finest Arabicas are grown at elevations of 4,000-6,000 feet in rich, volcanic soil and are then harvested with selective picking protocols.

Artesian Wells/Water: Artesian wells tap the groundwater confined below impermeable strata below the Earth's surface (such as clay or silt-sized sediments or tightly cemented rock). This confining layer inhibits the vertical movement of water, either into or out of the aquifer.

Automatic Brewer: An automatic coffee brewer requires a water supply line, which is usually hooked up to the back of the machine.

Bottled Water Cooler: A refrigeration unit with a 5-gallon PET bottle attached. For use in the home or at the office.

Bottleless Water Cooler: A Point-Of-Use (POU) bottleless water purification system converts ordinary tap water into absolutely pure, great tasting water. POU water coolers remove all of the common contaminants found in the bottled spring water, plus there is no chance of bacteria growing in the system.

Carafe: A container for beverages.

Carbonated Water: Water that has been saturated with carbon dioxide. Under pressure, the gas in the water becomes carbonic acid.

Carbon Filtration: The most effective filtration process for removing organic contaminants found in water. It works by attracting and holding certain chemicals as water passes through it. Because organic chemicals are usually responsible for taste, odor and color problems, carbon filtration can be used to improve "aesthetically objectionable" water. Carbon filtration is recognized by the WQA as an acceptable method to maintain certain drinking water contaminants within EPA limits.

Cation: A positively charged ion (calcium Ca++ or sodium Na+)

Chlorine: A gaseous, greenish-yellow element (Cl) that occurs widely in nature in combination with metals. It is extremely reactive and is used as a disinfecting, bleaching and oxidizing agent.

Coffee: A drink made by infusion or decoction from the roasted and ground coffee beans.

Coffee Bean: The seed of the coffee plant.

Coffee Brewer: A machine to decoct (to prepare a substance by boiling) ground coffee into a drinkable state.

Coffee Grinder: A machine that transforms whole coffee beans to tiny pieces by friction.

Coffee Roaster: A machine that roasts coffee beans, either via drum roasting or air roasting. Optimal roasting conditions include temperature, airflow and time.

Contaminant: Usually pesticides or other toxins. Contaminants enter the environment via the disposal of municipal wastes, factory discharges or oil/chemical spills.

Cook and Cold Water Cooler: This type of water cooler dispenses water that is room temperature and cold.

Cryptosporidium: A protozoan (single-celled organism) or parasite that lives in the intestines of animals and humans.

Decaffeinated Coffee: Coffee whereby the naturally occurring caffeine (stimulant) has been removed, either via water process or direct contact. The water process uses warm water under pressure to extract the caffeine, while the direct contact process uses water, pressure and methylene chloride. Both processes remove 96-98 percent of the original caffeine content.

Decaffeinated Tea: Tea whereby the naturally occurring caffeine (stimulant) has been removed, either via water process or direct contact. Herbal "teas" (not actually tea, but the leaves of the camelia sinensis shrub) contain no caffeine.

Deionized Water: Water from which both anions and cations have been removed by the ion exchange process. Only substances that ionize in water are removed in this process. Deionized water is generally considered to be higher quality than distilled.

Desalination: Basically, there are six different processes to remove the saline from water. Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis (BWRO), Electro dialysis Reversal (EDR) and Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SRO) are all membrane separation processes. Multiple Effect Distillation (MED), Multiple Stage Flash (MSF) and Mechanical Vapor Compression (MVC) are all thermal processes, which produce distilled water. In thermal desalting, the process involves some form of boiling or evaporation. In a simple still, seawater can be boiled to the point of releasing steam, which, when condensed, forms pure water. For membrane separation desalination, semi-permeable and ion-specific membranes can be used. Membrane processes are based on separation rather than distillation. Reverse osmosis membranes let water pass through them, but then reject the passage of salt ions.

Distillation: A process of evaporation and condensation for purification.

Distilled Water: Water that has been purified via an evaporation-condensation cycle. After passing through the cycle, it contains small amounts of dissolved solids.

Drinking Water: There are two major sources of drinking water: surface water and groundwater. Surface water comes from lakes, reservoirs and rivers, while groundwater comes from wells that the water supplier drills into aquifers. An aquifer is an underground geologic formation through which water flows slowly. Most large cities in the United States use surface water, and most small towns use groundwater.

Drum Roasting: Drum-type roasting machines roast the coffee beans as they tumble in a rotating drum that is usually heated by gas or wood. When the desired roast is then achieved, the beans are poured into a cooling hopper. Most green coffee is roasted at approximately 400 degrees. The process itself causes the beans to swell by more than 50 percent, while simultaneously greatly reducing their weight.

E. coli: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 is a bacterium that infects the intestinal tract and may produce a toxin that affects other parts of the body as well. E. coli infections can occur as isolated cases or as part of an outbreak. E. coli can be acquired by eating contaminated food or water and by contact with fecal material from infected persons or animals.

Enhanced Water: Water that has added essential vitamins, minerals electrolytes. It is a new concept within the bottled water segment.

Environmental Protection Agency: The EPA's mission is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment - air, water and land - upon which life depends. For 30 years, the EPA has been working for a cleaner, healthier environment for the American people.

Espresso: A strong coffee prepared by forcing steam through very finely ground coffee beans.

Fecal Coliform Bacteria: Total coliform bacteria are a collection of relatively harmless microorganisms that live in large numbers in the intestines of man and warm- and cold-blooded animals. A specific subgroup of this collection is the fecal coliform bacteria, with the most common member being Escherichia coli. These organisms may be separated from the total coliform group by their ability to grow at elevated temperatures and are associated only with the fecal material of warm-blooded animals.

Filtered Water: Water that has passed through filters -- whether naturally occurring or artificial - and is depleted of various minerals.

Flavored Coffee: Coffee that has been artificially flavored, with hints of chocolate, hazelnut, vanilla, etc. The flavors do not occur naturally in the coffee bean itself.

Flavored Water: Water made with natural fruit essence to add taste without calories.

Fluoridation: The addition of fluorides to drinking water.

Fluoride: A binary compound of fluorine, which is a yellowish gas that is highly reactive and most powerful as an oxidizing agent.

Food and Drug Administration: The FDA is one of the nation's oldest public health agencies and is a scientific, regulatory and public health agency that oversees items accounting for 25 cents of every dollar spent by consumers. Its jurisdiction encompasses most food products (other than meat and poultry), human and animal drugs, therapeutic agents of biological origin, medical devices, radiation-emitting products for consumer, medical, and occupational use, cosmetics, and animal feed. The agency grew from a single chemist in the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1862 to a staff of approximately 9,100 employees and a budget of $1.294 billion in 2001.

Giardia: Giardia is a protozoan parasite affecting the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. They are shed in feces in the form of a cyst. They can remain dormant for long periods in the cyst form; they then become active upon entering a host.

Ground Coffee: Whole coffee beans that have been crushed to powder by friction.

H2O: The scientific equation for water (two hydrogen molecules and one oxygen molecule form water).

Hard Water: Water rich in magnesium and calcium salts, which causes soap to form curds. Hard water is water that contains dissolved chalk, lime and other minerals. Rainwater is naturally soft, but as it percolates through chalk and limestone, it dissolves and collects these minerals. The "hardness" of the water to your home is dependant on where you live and the source (river or ground water) of your main water supply.

Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria: HPC Bacteria is used as the general measure of the bacterial population present in a drinking water system. A heterotrophic organism is one that can build itself of simple chemicals and ingredients from other simple organisms.

Hot and Cold Water Cooler: As the name suggests, hot and cold water coolers dispense water in two temperature ranges.

Hydrogen Sulfide: Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is a colorless gas that reeks of rotten eggs. HS poisoning is a rarity, mainly observed in industrial settings.

Inorganic Contaminants: Non-living contaminants such as asbestos, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nitrates/nitrites, selenium, lead, copper, antimony, beryllium, cyanide, nickel and thallium.

International Bottled Water Association: The IBWA is the trade association representing the bottled water industry. Founded in 1958, IBWA's membership includes U.S. and international bottlers, distributors and suppliers. IBWA plays an active role at all levels of state and federal government, assisting in the development of stringent regulations for bottled water to ensure the greatest safety possible and high quality of bottled water products.

Ion: A particle with either a positive or negative charge.

Ion Exchange Water Softener: A device used to soften water by exchanging hardness ions (calcium, magnesium) for another type of ion, usually sodium. The softened water still contains dissolved minerals, but no calcium or magnesium ions. Also called mechanical water softeners, cation exchange or "zeolite" water softeners.

Microbiological Contamination: Contamination of water by microorganisms such as bacteria or parasites.

Micron: A millionth of a meter.

Mineral Water: Water with large amounts of minerals, collected naturally by passing through layers of rock and earth to the spring or well.

Municipal Water: Water supplied by a city for public consumption, usually stored in a reservoir. Tap water.

Nanofiltration: A filtration process that uses membranes to preferentially separate different fluids or ions. Although nanofiltration is not as fine a filtration process as reverse osmosis, it requires the same energy to perform the separation.

Organic Contaminants: There are two types of organic contaminants, including volatile and synthetic. The volatile organic chemicals include acrylamide, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, 1.2-dichloroethane, 1.1-dichloroethylene, cis- and trans-1.2 dichloroethylene, dichloromethane, 1.2-dichloropropane, xylenes, epichlorohydrin, ethylbenzene, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, 1.2.4-tricholorobenzene, 1.1.1-tricholorethane, 1.1.2-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. The synthetic organic chemicals include adipate, alachlor, aldicarb/aldicarb metabolites, atrazine, benzo(a)pyrene, carbofuran, chlordane, 2.4-D, dalapon, dibromochloropropane, dinoseb, dioxin (, diquat, endothall, endrin, ethylene dibromide, glyphosate, heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, lindane, methoxychior, oxamyl, pentachlorophenol, phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl), picloram, polychlorinated biphenyls, simazine, toxaphene, 2.4.5-TP.

Ozone: A triatomic allotrope of oxygen (O3). It is a form of oxygen where the molecule contains three atoms instead of two. Ozone is always present in trace quantities in the earth's atmosphere. It is produced when O2 molecules are split into two oxygen atoms (O1), while in the presence of other oxygen molecules. O1 then combines with O2 to form O3. Ozone is the fresh, sweet smell in the air after a storm.

Ozone Injection: Ozone gas is injected into H2O through a pump, dispersing the ozone in very small bubbles. It increases the mass transfer rate from the gas to liquid phase. In this case, injection means finely disperse. (Unlike chlorine, ozone does not add chemicals to H2O.)

Ozone Sanitized: If water is sanitized (disinfected) by ozone, the ozone kills microorganisms with a process known as "cellular lysis." In the oxidation process, ozone actually ruptures the cellular membrane of the microorganism and distributes the bacterial cytoplasm into solution.

Particulates: Tiny particles in the air such as soot, dirt, dust, fumes and smoke coming from industry, cars and wood burning.

Pathogen: An agent that produces disease such as a bacterium or virus.

PET: Polyethylene Terephthalate is the popular, high-quality plastic bottled usually produced for 2 liters and smaller.

Point-Of-Use/Entry Water Purification System (POU): The POU system purifies the water at the source, such as a municipal tap in a home or office. POU systems are beneficial because there are contaminants in the municipal system and in the home/office plumbing that can be harmful.

Polycarbonate: Any group of hard thermoplastics with great resistance to impact and softening.

Pour Over Brewer: A pour over brewer is one where you manually "pour in" the water into the top of the machine. The coffee then begins to brew immediately. No water line hookup is required.

Purified Drinking Water: Water that is free of inorganic minerals, chemicals, as well as deadly microorganisms. After a reverse osmosis filtration process, the water is pure hydrogen and oxygen only.

Resin: Any of a large class of synthetic products usually with some physical properties similar to natural resins but which are different chemically. Synthetic resins are prepared by polymerization and are used as plastics, varnishes, in adhesives and in ion exchange.

Reverse Osmosis Filtration: Normal osmosis is, according to Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, the "movement of a solvent through a semi permeable membrane (as of a living cell) into a solution of higher solute concentration that tends to equalize the concentrates of solute on the two sides of the membrane." In other words, it is the passage of a solvent, but not its solute, through a semi permeable membrane into a more concentrated solution, tending to equalize the concentrations on the other side of the membrane. Reverse osmosis is the pumping of a solvent through a semi permeable membrane to counter osmosis.

Robusta Coffee: The coffee bean that produces an inferior tasting beverage with higher caffeine content.

Room Temperature Water Cooler: As the name suggests, a room temperature cooler dispenses water that is equal or close to the temperature of the room itself.

Sediment Filtration: The flow of water through a porous filtration medium whereby solid particles and/or materials are held back on the surface or the inside of the filter. Drinking water contains rather large amounts of extremely fine sediments such as sand, rust or sludge and/or extremely small organisms like bacteria and algae. Although these impurities cannot be detected with the naked eye, the filter holds them back.

Semi permeable membrane: A membrane that will pass some atoms or molecules but not others (lining of your intestines or a cell wall).

Soft Water: Water that is sufficiently free of calcium and magnesium salts so that no curd (oily matter) will form when soap is used. Generally, soft water is a relative term.

Solvent: A substance, usually a liquid, capable of dissolving other substances.

Solute: A substance that is dissolved.

Spring Water: Water that flows naturally from an underground spring. No drilling or pumps are involved.

Tap Water: Municipal water supplied by a city for public consumption and held in a reservoir.

Tea: A beverage made from the infusion of certain tea leaves and boiling water.

Thermal Server: To serve coffee, a thermal server uses a simple "gravity flow" system. Basically, place the coffee cup on the counter and under the thermal server. Then, you must hold down the serving knob and coffee pours into your cup by way of gravity.

Total Coliform Rule: The TCR's purpose is to improve public health protection by reducing fecal pathogens to minimal levels through control of total coliform bacteria, including fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli). It establishes a maximum contaminant level (MCL) based on the presence or absence of total coliforms, modifies monitoring requirements including testing for fecal coliforms, requires use of a sample siting plan and also requires sanitary surveys for system collecting fewer than five samples per month.  The TCR applies to all public water systems.

Total Dissolved Solids: TDS is the sum of all solids dissolved in water. The components that make up TDS vary, but usually include minerals, metals and salts.

Total Solids: The TS content measures the amount of naturally remaining minerals and organic material in wastewater after all of the water has evaporated.

Tri-Temp Water Cooler: A tri-temp cooler dispenses water at three temperature ranges: hot, room temperature and cold.

Ultrafiltration: A membrane separation technology that separates components from process streams by retaining target compounds and allowing the passage of the remaining process solution through membrane pores of a specific submicron size.

Ultra Violet Light Sterilization: Ultra violet sterilization is a highly effective, economical and safe way to remove harmful microorganisms from water supplies without the need for chemicals and without affecting taste. Ultra violet light is a natural component of sunlight, falling just below the visible light region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Higher energy wavelengths of UV light have the ability to destroy microorganisms in water or air.

Water Hardness: The U.S. Department of the Interior classifies hardness based on the grains per gallon (gpg) concentration of the hardness minerals. To put this in perspective, a typical aspirin equals about five grains of material. If the aspirin were dissolved in a gallon of water it would add 5 gpg of "aspirin" to the water. Where hardness is concerned, water containing 1-3.5 gpg of the hardness minerals calcium and/or magnesium is classified as slightly hard; water in the 3.5-7.0 gpg range is considered to be moderately hard; at 7.0-10.5 gpg water is considered to be hard; and very hard water is classified as water with concentrations greater than 10.5 gpg. (Conversely, Soft water has a hardness of less than 1 gpg.)

Water Quality Association: The Water Quality Association is a not-for-profit international trade association representing the household, commercial, industrial and small community water treatment industry. WQA is a resource and information source, a voice for the industry, an educator for professionals, a laboratory for product testing and a communicator to the public.

Water Softening: To soften water fully, the minerals (calcium and magnesium) that cause hardness must be removed. These minerals are removed by ion-exchange.

World Health Organization: The WHO is a United Nations specialized agency for health, established in 1948.  The WHO's objective is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. The organization is governed by 192 member states through the World Health Assembly.


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